[145] Even in the absence of further Roman expansion, the value of the province depended on Roman overall strength: while Rome was strong, the Dacian salient was an instrument of military and diplomatic control over the Danubian lands; when Rome was weak, as during the Crisis of the Third Century, the province became a liability and was eventually abandoned. [105], Trajan is known particularly for his conquests in the Near East, but initially for the two wars against Dacia – the reduction to client kingdom (101–102), followed by actual incorporation into the Empire of the trans-Danube border group of Dacia – an area that had troubled Roman thought for over a decade with the unstable peace negotiated by Domitian's ministers with the powerful Dacian king Decebalus. Lendon, "Three Emperors and the Roman Imperial Regime". [91] For the same reason, judging from Pliny's letters it can also be assumed that Trajan and his aides were as much bored as they were alarmed by the claims of Dio and other Greek notables to political influence based on what they saw as their "special connection" to their Roman overlords. [205], Finally, there are other modern historians who think that Trajan's original aims were purely military and quite modest: to assure a more defensible Eastern frontier for the Roman Empire, crossing Northern Mesopotamia along the course of the Khabur River in order to offer cover to a Roman Armenia. Alan Bowman, Peter Garnsey, Averil Cameron, eds., Meléndez, Javier Bermejo, Santiago Robles Esparcia, and Juan M. Campos Carrasco. In: In the absence of literary references, however, the positioning of the new legions is conjectural: some scholars think that Legio II Traiana Fortis was originally stationed on the Lower Danube and participated in the Second Dacian War, being only later deployed to the East:cf. [128] Trajan also reformed the infrastructure of the Iron Gates region of the Danube. 3. It's noteworthy, however, that Trajan, already in Syria early in 113, consistently refused to accept diplomatic approaches from the Parthians in order to settle the Armenian imbroglio peacefully.[179]. Légat de Germanie supérieure, il est adopté par Nerva et associé à son pouvoir (97), puis lui succède en 98. Various authors have discussed the existence of the province and its location: André Maricq (La province d'Assyrie créée par Trajan. [102] On the local level, among the lower section of the Eastern propertied,[103] the alienation of most Greek notables and intellectuals towards Roman rule, and the fact that the Romans were seen by most such Greek notables as aliens, persisted well after Trajan's reign. [79] Eventually, Dio gained for Prusa the right to become the head of the assize-district, conventus (meaning that Prusans did not have to travel to be judged by the Roman governor), but eleutheria (freedom, in the sense of full political autonomy) was denied. Some historians also attribute the construction of the Babylon fortress in Egypt to Trajan;[277] the remains of the fort is what is now known as the Church of Mar Girgis and its surrounding buildings. The Trajan font . Author of. [5] Book 68 in Cassius Dio's Roman History, which survives mostly as Byzantine abridgments and epitomes, is the main source for the political history of Trajan's rule. Show popularity chart Trajan is a variant of the Latin name Traianus, whose meaning is unknown. [8] It is certain that much of the text of the letters that appear in this collection over Trajan's signature was written and/or edited by Trajan's Imperial secretary, his ab epistulis. [226], As far as the sources allow a description of this campaign, it seems that one Roman division crossed the Tigris into Adiabene, sweeping south and capturing Adenystrae; a second followed the river south, capturing Babylon; Trajan himself sailed down the Euphrates from Dura-Europos – where a triumphal arch was erected in his honour – through Ozogardana, where he erected a "tribunal" still to be seen at the time of Julian the Apostate's campaigns in the same area. The wretched woman, in the midst of all this, He served 10 years as a legionary staff tribune. Race and Ethinicity ⓘ Summary. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. [220] This process seems to have been completed at the beginning of 116, when coins were issued announcing that Armenia and Mesopotamia had been put under the authority of the Roman people. [84] A similar situation existed in Claudiopolis, where a public bath was built with the proceeds from the entrance fees paid by "supernumerary" members of the Council, enrolled with Trajan's permission. [201] The fact that emissaries from the Kushan Empire might have attended to the commemorative ceremonies for the Dacian War may have kindled in some Greco-Roman intellectuals like Plutarch – who wrote about only 70,000 Roman soldiers being necessary to a conquest of India – as well as in Trajan's closer associates, speculative dreams about the booty to be obtained by reproducing Macedonian Eastern conquests. [93], Nevertheless, while the office of corrector was intended as a tool to curb any hint of independent political activity among local notables in the Greek cities,[94] the correctores themselves were all men of the highest social standing entrusted with an exceptional commission. He was also a prolific builder of triumphal arches, many of which survive, and a builder of roads such as the Via Traiana - the extension of the Via Appia from Beneventum to Brundisium[153] - and Via Traiana Nova, a mostly military road between Damascus and Aila, whose building was connected to the founding of the province of Arabia (see annexation of Nabataea) . 004;PS 001. Trajan, né sous le nom de Marcus Ulpius Traianus le 18 septembre 53 à Italica et mort le 8 ou 9 août 117 à Selinus, en Cilicie, est empereur romain de fin janvier 98 à août 117. Ph.D Thesis, University of Missouri, 2015, page 70. Wiseman, James 1997 "Beyond the Danube's Iron Gates. Upon reaching the Persian Gulf, he is said to have wept because he was too old to repeat Alexander the Great’s achievements in India. [28] Sura is also described as telling Hadrian in 108 about his selection as imperial heir. Native Dacians continued to live in scattered rural settlements, according to their own ways. From there, after his father's replacement, he seems to have been transferred to an unspecified Rhine province, and Pliny implies that he engaged in active combat duty during both commissions. Impressive examples survive in Spain, in North Africa, in the Balkans, and in Italy. [222], After wintering in Antioch during 115/116  – and, according to literary sources, barely escaping from a violent earthquake that claimed the life of one of the consuls, M. Pedo Virgilianus[223][224] – Trajan again took to the field in 116, with a view to the conquest of the whole of Mesopotamia, an overambitious goal that eventually backfired on the results of his entire campaign. [119][120], Prior to the campaign, Trajan had raised two entirely new legions: II Traiana – which, however, may have been posted in the East, at the Syrian port of Laodicea – and XXX Ulpia Victrix, which was posted to Brigetio, in Pannonia. Package; Trajan Complete Family Pack . Last year it ranked 6,275th in the U.S. Social Security Administration list of most popular baby boy names. Col. 1485. [76], The first known corrector was charged with a commission "to deal with the situation of the free cities", as it was felt that the old method of ad hoc intervention by the Emperor and/or the proconsuls had not been enough to curb the pretensions of the Greek notables. [240], Trajan left the Persian Gulf for Babylon – where he intended to offer sacrifice to Alexander in the house where he had died in 323 BC[241] –  But a revolt led by Sanatruces, a nephew of the Parthian king Osroes I who had retained a cavalry force, possibly strengthened by the addition of Saka archers,[242] imperiled Roman positions in Mesopotamia and Armenia. [195][196] In the absence of conclusive evidence, trade between Rome and India might have been far more balanced, in terms of quantities of precious metals exchanged: one of our sources for the notion of the Roman gold drain – Pliny's the Younger's uncle Pliny the Elder – had earlier described the Gangetic Plains as one of the gold sources for the Roman Empire. [37], By not openly supporting Domitian's preference for equestrian officers,[38] Trajan appeared to conform to the idea (developed by Pliny) that an emperor derived his legitimacy from his adherence to traditional hierarchies and senatorial morals. His selection represented a reaction against Domitian’s autocracy and a return to the cooperation between emperor and Senate that had characterized the reign of Vespasian. 32 f. and 73 f.[288], Many emperor's after Trajan would, when they were sworn into office, be wished "Felicior Augusto, Melior Traiano." According to Pliny, the best way to achieve this was to lower the minimum age for holding a seat on the council, making it possible for more sons of the established oligarchical families to join and thus contribute to civic spending; this was seen as preferable to enrolling non-noble wealthy upstarts. [53] This title had mostly to do with Trajan's role as benefactor, such as in the case of him returning confiscated property. [262], Hadrian held an ambiguous position during Trajan's reign. Available at, Dante 1998, p. 593. Eugen Cizek, "Tacite face à Trajan", available at, Fritz Heichelheim, Cedric Veo, Allen Ward,(1984), The History of the Roman People, pp. Rome, le forum de Trajan Rome, le forum de Trajan (Italica 53-Sélinonte de Cilicie 117), empereur romain (98-117). It was during this time that he corresponded with Pliny the Younger on the subject of how to deal with the Christians of Pontus, telling Pliny to continue to persecute Christians but not to accept anonymous denunciations in the interests of justice as well as of "the spirit of the age". Il est le premier empereur romain issu d'une famille établie dans une province d'Hispanie, … The traditional donative to the troops, however, was reduced by half. Trajan's birthplace of Italica was founded as a Roman military colony of Italic settlers in 206 BC, though it is unknown when the Ulpii arrived there. The Roman province eventually took the form of an "excrescence" North of the Danube, with ill-defined limits, stretching from the Danube northwards to the Carpathians,[123] and was intended perhaps as a basis for further expansion in Eastern Europe – which the Romans conceived to be much more "flattened", and closer to the ocean, than it actually was. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Dikla Rivlin Katz, Noah Hacham, Geoffrey Herman, Lilach Sagiv, Z. Yavetz, "The Urban Plebs in the Days of the Flavians, Nerva and Trajan". Trajan is based on the inscriptional capitals from the Trajan column in Rome, built AD 113. Dio, who tells this narrative, offers his father – the then governor of Cilicia Apronianus – as a source, and therefore his narrative is possibly grounded on contemporary rumor. [141] The garrison city of Oescus received the status of Roman colony after its legionary garrison was redeployed. [160], Although the system is well documented in literary sources and contemporary epigraphy, its precise aims are controversial and have generated considerable dispute among modern scholars, especially about its actual aims and scope as a piece of welfare policy. [107] The treaty seems to have allowed Roman troops the right of passage through the Dacian kingdom in order to attack the Marcomanni, Quadi and Sarmatians. xxx. [61], An excellent example of this Greek alienation was the personal role played by Dio of Prusa in his relationship with Trajan. Therefore, in October 97, Nerva adopted as his successor Trajan, whom he had made governor of Upper Germany and who seemed acceptable both to the army commanders and to the Senate. Add to Cart Checkout In Cart (0) Desktop 55 27.50 55. [290] Mommsen adopted a divided stance towards Trajan, at some point of his posthumously published lectures even speaking about his "vainglory" (Scheinglorie). It is usually assumed that the program was intended to bolster citizen numbers in Italy, following the provisions of Augustus' moral legislation (Lex Julia) favoring procreation on moral grounds – something openly acknowledged by Pliny. [39] Therefore, he could point to the allegedly republican character of his rule. [159] In general terms, the scheme functioned by means of mortgages on Italian farms (fundi), through which registered landowners received a lump sum from the imperial treasure, being in return expected to pay yearly a given proportion of the loan to the maintenance of an alimentary fund. In Spain, Trajan had an early rigorous military training in the frontier provinces holding several important military posts. In: Maricq: A precise description of events in Judea at the time being impossible, due to the non-historical character of the Jewish (rabbinic) sources, and the silence of the non-Jewish ones: William David Davies, Louis Finkelstein, Steven T. Katz, eds.. Christer Bruun, "the Spurious 'Expeditio Ivdaeae' under Trajan". Birthplace: Italica, Baetica Location of death: Selinus, Cilicia Cause. [9] Therefore, discussion of Trajan and his rule in modern historiography cannot avoid speculation. Also, Trajan withdrew from circulation silver denarii minted before the previous devaluation achieved by Nero, something that allows for thinking that Trajan's devaluation had to do with political ends, such as allowing for increased civil and military spending. Patrick Le Roux, IN Ségolène Demougin, ed., Longden, "Notes on the Parthian Campaigns", 8. [92] A revealing case-history, told by Pliny, tells of Dio of Prusa placing a statue of Trajan in a building complex where Dio's wife and son were buried - therefore incurring a charge of treason for placing the Emperor's statue near a grave. He sent orders to Rome for the execution of the praetorians who had forced Nerva to execute the conspirators who had brought him to the throne. The slab, dated to the year 101, commemorates the building of at least one canal that went from the Kasajna tributary to at least Ducis Pratum, whose embankments were still visible until recently. [245] Later in 116, Trajan, with the assistance of Quietus and two other legates, Marcus Erucius Clarus and Tiberius Julius Alexander Julianus,[246][247] defeated a Parthian army in a battle where Sanatruces was killed (possibly with the assistance of Osroes' son and Sanatruces' cousin, Parthamaspates, whom Trajan wooed successfully). [83], Such an increase in the number of council members was granted to Dio's city of Prusa, to the dismay of existing councilmen who felt their status lowered. [35] There remained the issue of the strained relations between the emperor and the Senate, especially after the supposed bloodiness that had marked Domitian's reign and his dealings with the Curia. Paraskevi Martzavou, Nikolaos Papazarkadas, eds., Giuseppe Zecchini, "Plutarch as Political Theorist and Trajan", E. Guerber, "Les correctores dans la partie hellénophone de l'empire Romain du règne de Trajan à l'avènement de Dioclétien : étude prosopographique". [149] Therefore, use of slave labor in the province itself seems to have been relatively undeveloped, and epigraphic evidence points to work in the gold mines being conducted by means of labor contracts (locatio conductio rei) and seasonal wage-earning. Trajan's putative lovers included Hadrian, pages of the imperial household, the actor Pylades, a dancer called Apolaustus, and senator Lucius Licinius Sura. He was being adopted as Nerva's heir and would be next in line for the throne. Justice requires it and pity holds me back.' His magnificent complex in Rome raised to commemorate his victories in Dacia (and largely financed from that campaign's loot) – consisting of a forum, Trajan's Column, and Trajan's Market, still stands in Rome today. In 76–77, Trajan's father was Governor of Syria (Legatus pro praetore Syriae), where Trajan himself remained as Tribunus legionis. The senator Pliny had endowed his city of Comum a perpetual right to an annual charge (vectigal) of thirty thousand sestertii on one of his estates in perpetuity even after his death (Pliny's heirs or any subsequent purchaser of the estate being liable), with the rent thus obtained contributing to the maintenance of Pliny's semi-private charitable foundation. Clearly in Trajan’s time the Roman government did not yet have (and, indeed, was not to have for another century) any policy of persecution of the Christians; official action was based on the need to maintain good order, not on religious hostility. 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